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August 22, 1940     Indian Valley Record
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GENERA HUGH S. JOHNSON t~tt,d THE UNPREDICTABLE NEW YORK.--General Pershing ~said that no matter what else we do to mix up in the European war, iwe shall never send an expedition. l ary force to Europe. On all the military probabilities he is right, as ,he usually is on such questions. But the unerringly certain quality about strategic planning is its unerring un- certainty--its utter unpredictability. Who would have dreamed in 1913, for example, that before Novem- ber, 1918, we would have more than 2,000,000 American soldiers in France--a larger combat force than Great Britain ever had there? I'll tell you some who didn't dream it-- the President of the United States and the general staffs of Germany, France, England, Austria, Italy, Belgium and the U. S. A. W'nen the first selective draft started I wrote a memorandum, in July, 1917, suggesting that it be for 1,000,000 men--not to take them be- fore they were ready, but to classlfy and warn those who would have to go. It came back ink-spattered by an angry pen-point that had punc- tured the paper and spurted indig- nation. It was initialed "W. W." and said, in effect, that the Ameri- can people .would never stand for a draR of a million men, that our con- tribution was to be largely in money and supplies, that it was absurd to think of an offensive in any such terms--Just as General Pershing says today. That was perfectly understand- able. The Allies were then saying that all they advised was a "token" American force of a few divisions to "show the flag" and boost French and British morale, that they need- ed our factories, our supplies, our e . , money and the available shlppmg to keep business as usual much more than they would ever need our un- trained levies. The enemy general staffs agreed. They did not count on Americans in mass until we ac- tually began to send them, after the British debacle of March, 1918. We in the selective draft organ/. zation never agreed. As the system started, it was not geared to get 100,000 men a month. In Decem- ber, 1917, I revised the entire ma- chine to examine and classify the .whole 10,000,000 pool of man-power. A result was that when the pres- sure came in 1918 and the Allies began to scream for "men in their undershirts," it was enabled to step iup the monthly taking from some 130,000 or 40,000 to 400,000 men a month--without a ripple. I shall al- ways believe that this change did much to win the war. ' Anyway, it burned in on my mind the fact that no man is smart enough to foresee the course of war once the fateful decision is made to en- gage in it. We do a lot of talking about "defensive" war and "defend- tug" the Western hemisphere. No country at war can completely de- cide its own policy any more than Joe Louis c~uld decide what he had to do against Max Sehmeling in their first fight. The enemy has some- thing to say about that. If wd! get into this shindy we may have to send men in the army to Eurbpe, Africa or eastern Asia. We almost certainly will have to senU men in the navy and marines to all those places. As has frequently been re- marked in this space, in a knock. out fight you can't afford to "hit soft," and you can't enter any fight with one hand tied behind your back or one foot hobbled to a post. Germauy is fighting this war as England always fought her wars-- to win. If we get into it, that is the way we must fight--with every- thing we have and anywhere on the surface of the globe where a power- ful blow may bring victory. Let's make no mistake about that or be fooled into any action on the error that any war is a picnic or that either combatant can call his shots without regard to what the enemy may do. W PATRIOTIC UNDERSTANDING I can't see much the matter with the President's avoidance of a di- rect endorsement of the Burke- Wadsworth conscription bill in .its present form. He has at least twice indicated his belief in the principles of selective service. The cost of registration is utterly negligible. You simply use the existing local machinery for regis- tration for elections. The service Is voluntary and uncompensated. The only expense is for forms, station- ery, postal and telegraph bills. That will have to be borne whatever the age limits, and the additional cost for registering men up to 64 would hardly equal that of governmental mimeographed polltlca! handouts for one day. How can you "register only those you need"? Registration isn't selec- tlon for service. You can't tell what you need--or rather what you ought to take--until you see what you've got. The Burke-Wadsworth bill is con- fusing and out of that confusion is growing a distinct, heart-sickening political approach to this subject. This column is not in the least in favor of any "coalition" departure from the two-party system. But this selective service business is absolutely necessary for defense-- which our people do want. Washington Digest INDIAN VAI,LEY RECORD Thursday, August 22, 1940 Congressional Expenditures Pass Twenty-One Billion Dollar Mark This Money Could Buy Entire Railway System of U. S. Or House One-Fourth of Families in Nation, According to Survey by A. F. I. William Bruckart, for many years Washington correspondent whose letters appeared in this newspaper, died suddenly Sunday, August 4. Temporarily the Washington letter will be written by Carter Field and others. (Released by Western Newspaper Union.} By G. F. WASHINGTON.- For the first time in American history one ses- sion of congress has authorized fed- eral expenditures in excess of $20,- 000,000,000. The nation was astonished and in- dignant in 1913 when two sessions of congress appropriated $1,000,000,000. It was our first "billion dollar con- gress." In 1934, we had our first $10,000,- 000,000 session. Six years later, between January 3 and August 15, 1940, the third session of the Seventy-sixth congress authorized spending to the extent of $21,439,678,000. How much is $21,000,000,000. It would buy outright the entire rail- road system of the United States-- every mile of track, every bridge, terminal and yard, every piece of rolling stock and locomotive equip- ment, every mile of telephone and telegraph equipment, plus every sta- tion and siding. The official reports of the Inter- state Commerce commission place the current value of American rail- roads at roundly $20,000,000,000. The nation built up this railroad system over a period of 115 years. It is difficult for the mind to grasp such spending. But we may re- duce the authorizations of the pres- ent session to familiar terms. Let us assume that the whole amount authorized since January had bean devoted to building houses at $3,000 each. That would be a substantial house- better than the average American home today. Federal ap- propriations for these eight months wo~d build 7,000,000 such houses, or one for every fourth family in the United States. " ' Translated into bushels of wheat at current market prices, the ex- penditures approved for the program since January this year tell a more impressive story. Assuming a farm price of 70 cents a bushel and an average yield of 30 bushels per acre, we arrive at a gross production of $21 per acre. This means that it will take a bil- lion acres of wheat to pay for the federal spending authorized in eight months--assuming the government took every ounce of the national farm production. But, of course, we could not raise a billion acres of anything in a sin- gle year. The combined harvested area of all American farms and all crops is only 300,000,000 acres. This means it would take the full crop of three successive harvests, plus one- third of the fourth harvest, to pay the federal spending bill as ap- proved in the year 1940 to date. Stated another way, every Ameri. can farm would have to produce its normal crop and turn everything over to the government for more than three years to pay for this first $20,000,000,000 congress. This would mean nothing left on the farms for feed, seed, or family food supplies. It would leave noth- ing for routine operating expenses. Our federal government is the fastest growing "industry" in the United States. Recent official figures show pub- lic employment in 1939 as 125.3 per cent of 1929--despite a small 4e- crease in the combined state and local payrolls over the decade. Only one major sector of Ameri- can industry employed more per- sons last year, as compared with 1929.-the electric utilities, with em- ployment at 102.4 per cent. But total factory employment for 1939 was but 80.4 per cent of 1929. Employment in retail trade was 75.6 per cent; and railroad employ- ment, 64.7 per cent. a $ The U. S. civil service commis- sion's July report shows a few more than 1,000,000 civil employees on the federal payroll--agalnst 564,437 on Msrch 4, 1933. * * American industry in 1939 paid taxes aggregating $611 for every per- son on the payroll. This is the fig. ure reported by the American Fed- aragon of Investors, on the basis of detailed reports from 183 leading corporations. RECORD EXPENDITURE All taxes were 54 per cent of com- bined net before taxes. Seven cor- porations earned a profit but landed in the red after paying taxes. Taxes were $3.05 per common share outstanding, against dividends of $1.62 per common share paid for the year. These corporations maintained av- erage employment of 3,378.255 per- sons. Conclusion of the study: "Ever- mounting tax burdens are not only a handicap to the national welfare. but also raise added problems for every manufacturer and business man. They directly affect every em- ployee and stockholder. They in- crease the cost of doing business. and reduce or wipe out profits." They Call It CS By CARTER FIELD WASHINGTON.- Aid to Britain has slipped into second place, with our own preparedness now first. This is not because President Roosevelt wants it that way. The President believes that aid to Britain is the best possible policy for the United States--that every day Britain holds off the Nazis gives the U. S. that additional day to prepare, that ev- ery weakening of Germany under the British defensive blows will make the eventual task of the Unit- ed States that much easier. Put a little stronger, he believes that when we give the British soldiers and sailors something to fight with, we save the lives of American boys later on. There is a very strong following for this theory throughout the coun- try, entirely distinct from the group which sentimentally favors Britain either as a country or as a form of government, in contrast with the dic- tatorship. Actually it is believed here that the Republican high com- mand feels the same way, with the exception of the vice presidential nominee, Charles L. McNary. Yet it is polities which has caused the President to turn cagy on new steps to aid Britain. He has to be SURE that he is not endangering his own re.election. Not because the high command of the Republi- cans would attack such an action, but because the isolationists are making such a determined effort to convince the public that Roosevelt is leading us down the path to war. For instance, take the matter of these 50 destroyers. Ambassador Lord Lothian said in a radio inter- view a few weeks back that the greatest aid this country could give Britain IMMEDIATELY would be 50 of those World war destroyers. These are the destroyers which up until the present war broke out everyone thought,would.eventually be broken up for scrap. They had been packed in grease, with no thought of their ever being put in commission until last fall, when President Roose- velt ordered them put in shape for use. At that time there was much talk about the "neutrality patrol." But later there came the torpedo- boat episode. It developed that the United States had built some of these little ships with 18-inch tor- pedo tubes, the size used "by the British. We have no 18-inch torpe- do~s; our navy does not like them, preferring the 21-inch type. Congress discovered by accident that these torpedo boats were to be turned over to the British and there was a terrific outcry from the iso- lationists. They protested despite the obvious absurdity of our keeping a type of boat which fires a different size torpedo from the one we use when the British were eager to pay for them, and we could use that money to build the type we do want. So eager is the President to aid the British that there is no doubt he would have forced the issue, and have forced the issue more recently on the 50 old destroyers, if he were not alarmed by the strength shown by Wendell Willkie in the polls. As it is, he is afraid of alienating the followers of the isolationists--just a few of them voting against him in November might decide whether or not there is to be four more years of the New Deal. But he is working on public senti- meat. The fact that Secretary of State Cordell Hull virtually sum. maned photographers to picture him congratulating Gem John J. Persh- ing, after Pershing's radio appeal to let Britain have the destroyers, speaks volumes. a President Roosevelt is not going through the campaign without a lit. tie stumping in addition to the "fire- side chats." There are two reasons for this. One is that regard.less of what other talents he may have, Roosevelt's new running mate, Hen- ry A. Wallace, has never been ac- cused of being a rabble rouser. Roosevelt's fond dream of the vice presidential candidate carrying the stumping load doesn't fit in with his pr~dtical political views. Other reason is that the early polls indi- cate some definite Willkie trends. For the first time in history, the United States congress ap- propriated a sum exceeding $21,- 000,000,000. Congressional expend. iture passed the $1,000,000,000 mark for the first time in 1913, according to a recent study re- leased by the American Federa- tion of Investors. The study re- veals that this sum equals the en- tire gross income from American farms for more than three years. Kathleen Norris Says: Why Enemies at All, Ever? (Bell Syndlcate--WNU Service,} Anything like conferences, concessions, understandings, plans, maps never enters the heads of European leaders. Arms are still the only arguments, on the other side of the water. By KATHLEEN NORRIS yEARS ago when a small brother of mine re- ceived as a birthday present what seemed to him a dazzlingly complete set of tools, he went out to speak to the fine old Portuguese who puttered about as a general carpenter and gardener and handy man on my father's farm. "I've been thinking about our tools, Joe," said eight- year-old Fred, "and I think the best rule for us now is no more borrowing and no more lending!" As often happens, the phrase of a child fits a much larger situation than a child's mind can grasp. The idea of stopping all lending and bor- rowing, as soon as one has reached the point where one need no longer borrow, is applicable to the state of affairs in Europe today. The legitimate way for any na- tion to enlarge its wealth and ex- tend its borders has always been by violence and seizure. For 2,000 ,ears the battle has been to the strong; churches, philosophers, ed- ucators, politicians and the great mass of peoples have all agreed that if any nation COULD take a thing by force, that nation was le- gally entitled to it--until a more forcei~1 nation came along. Victo- ries have been shaky things, trem- bling along for a few years until the vanquished could gather strength enough to turn them into defeats. Age-old resentments have smouldered between countries ever since history began; the conquered country only awaiting its hour to rise and struggle again. To the Strong. One country pushes great busi- ness ventures into another. The in- vaded country protests; its curren- cy stands at a ruinous value, the richer country, pouring its mer- chants in, carrying off treasure in its ships, is draining it of its wealth, year after year. So an uprising takes place, and an "episode" oc- curs, and then the richer, distant country has an excuse for sending men and guns, and smashing down an unarmed people's pride and pow- er, and holding military and manda- tory rights in that country hence- forth. Perhaps the ruler who gives those powers has no right to do so; perhaps there is open treachery on both sides. That doesn't matter. The better armed country has won. It can now bleed the other country white, garrison it, take every advantage of its poverty, its helplessness. A Vicious Cycle. It would be a silly waste of time to enumerate the repetition of this endless process. It has for 19 hun. dred years been considered the right process. Armies of invasion have been formally blessed; pray- ers have been fervently offered that they may be successful in murder- ing on a larger scale than their enemies. Territories seized, in our lifetime, by successful troops, have been serenely occupied and claimed by the triumphant countries. This was the old way. Let's not be too hasty, therefore, in condemn- ing those nations that still cling to it as the right way. For the sur- prising and wonderful thing is not that men still have faith in war, but that ANY nation begins to feel--and some nations are beginning so to feel--that there is something wrong with it. War is the natural thing. Children are born fighters; might rules in the nursery until some bet- WHY WAR? Kathleen Norris makes a bold and revealing study o/ this impor- tant question. In her opinion, war is natural--in Europe. Miss Norris points out that /or centuries the only "legitimate" way for a nation to increase in wealth or size has been seizure. She finds that nations cry "Peacet" only when they have their arms toll o! booty which some other nation might try to steal back. ter thing has been put into small hearts and minds. And war has ruled the world for a long, long time. Go 'Moral' to Protect ,Booty. But now, partly because of the modern educators of newspapers, news reels, telegraph, radio, sud- denly great countries begin to be a little ashamed of their long his- tories of violence and conquest. They begin to hold up shocked hands at those bad countries that try to steal what they need, instead of just po- litely asking for it. They ar~e horri- fied that anyone is still so old-fash- ioned and stupid as to think that guns are arguments. Having for hundreds of years forced the most brutal possible terms upon their en- emies, they are pained and ,sur- prised that any country is still talk- ing of reprisals and impositions. "Why must you go on fussing about what we stole from you?" they ask plaintively. "We are rich and comfortable and satisfied, and it's becoming extremely old-fashioned to go on fighting this way. If you haven't enough oil wells or wheat fields or seaports--forget it! We're using all we need, and we mean to hold several we don't need, and that's all there is to itl" Anything like conferences, conces- sions, understandings, plans, maps ---anything like sympathy with your neighbors, friendly talks, payments, apparently never enters the heads of European leaders. When they become frightened over the weak- ness of their positions then they be- gin 'feverishly to arm. Arms are still the only arguments, on the oth. er side of the water. Cry 'Peace' With Pockets Full. Oh, of course they SAY "peace!" But they say it as robbers might, leaving your house with his arms f.ull of your possessions. They say it as a rich sleepy old lady might to a noisy outburst from beggar children. "Do go away and stop bothering me. H you haven't any bread, try eclairs!" They never say it in hon- est generosity; they never say, "We'll forgive, we'll forget, we give back this and help you buy that." Never. But one great nation has done gomething in her short history to start a new fashion. America has always been shy about taking war spoils. After the great war she in- nocently protested against the com- placent partition and theft that was going on so gaily among the allies. It wasn't her way to rob a fallen enemy, even under the dignified dis- guise of a "treaty." She would have none of it. The American Way. Earlier, she made the Louisiana purchase and paid for it, and France has never questioned her claims to it, nor hated her for having it. I PHOTO FINISHING 16 PRINTS 11011 Developed and 16 prints 260. 16 Reprints ~. REX PHOTO - . OGDEN, UTAH REMEDY ASTHMA & HAY FEVER it -- then te others. It worksl "DAVIS FORMULA 7895." Phone or write. P.G. OVERTON, SK. 6346, 2416 Clement St San Francisco, CallS% IHOUSEHOLD OUESTIONS Grass stains can easily be re- moved from linens, cottons or white stockings by rubbing the stains with molasses before wash- ing. The backs of pictures should be !inspected from time to time. If I there are any holes in the paper, fresh pieces should be pasted over ,them, or dust will get in. " I Delicate co;or: i: washing ma- terials will not fade if before be- ing washed they are soaked 'in tepid water to which a few drops of turpentine have been added. * ca Mustard and baking powder set- tle in cans and should be stirred lightly before using. When laundering curtains o~ voile, scrim or any material which has to be ironed, if they are folded so the selvage ends are together and ironed, they will hang per- fectly even and straight. Clean paint brushes used for en- ameling with turpentine. When used to shellac, clean with de- natured alcohol. e * All vegetables should be put on to cook in boiling water. This holds the major portion of the mineral matter and starch within. tt ~ * When stewing fruit, add the sug- ar just before taking the fruit off ~the stove. In this way far less sugar is needed than if it is put in at the beginning. * a When folding a bedspread back for the night begin at the top of the spread and fold it toward the' foot of the bed in half. Then fold from each end toward the cen- ter, forming a triangle, the point of which is toward the head and the base toward the foot of the bed. Hold the point and fold it smoothly over the footboard. To unfold, follow in reverse order. No child can be sure to escape Maybe you don't real/ze how easy it is to become infected with reims wormol Your child may "catch" the/n1'ec~on from~)the~" chl. I dren fro.m a d.o~, from uncooked vega- M),DIeS, tram nu'e6~ waUoP. So, watch put for these warning signal: ~n.easy stomach Fidgeting and squlrm/nS. I.~nY .nose a~nq other parts. Finicky apP~'~ ~!us: J~IULUg anus. Andff you even su.sos~ ~na~ your child has round worms, sf~'e JAYNE'S VERMIFUGE ~ JAYNE'S VERMIFUGE/s thebest known worm-exp.ellant in Amerlc~ It has been DBeO. Dy IDIUlOnS for over a century. JAYNE'S VERMIFUGE has the abil- Ity to drive out ]argo round worms yet it tastes good and ac~s gently. It d~es not conr~tn santonin. If there are no worms It works merely as & mild laxative. Ask for JAYNE'S VER-MI-FUGE at any drug store, FREE: Valuable medical book "Worms vine inside You." Write to ~ant ~.A. r. J~. Jeo~ne & ~on. zVtue flt~. Phfl~elDh~ Perfect Duties Gentleness and cheerfulness, these come before all morality; they are the perfect duties.--Ste- venson. Help Them Cleanse the Blood of Harmful Body Waste Your kidneys are constantly filtering waste matter from the blood stream. Bu~ kidneys sometimes las in their work--do not act as Nature intended--fail to re- move impurities that, if retained, may poison the system and upset the whole body machinery. Symptoms may be nagging backache, persistent headache, attacks of dizzine~, getting.tip nights, swelling, pu/fln~ unaer toe eyes--a feeling of nervoUS 8nxlety and loss of pep and strength. Other signs of kidney or bladder dis- order are sometimes burning, scanty oe too frequent urination. There sboeld be no doubt that prompt tesatment is wiser than neglect. Use Dean's Pills. Dean's have been winnln| , new friends for more than forty yearS. They have a nation-wide reputation. Are recommended by gratefulpeopla the country over. Ask ~o~r netshSorl America, to a chorus of derisive i~NU 12 " laughter from Europe, paid for the Philippines. When she wanted Alaska, she bought it: Europe couldn't get over the jokel A great nation, with an army, buying a place that was undefended, almost unoccupied, and that could have beeh taken at the cost of only a few American and Russian llvesl But America made a friend and not an enemy of Russia, and that isn't so bad an investment. TEACHING A CHILD VALUE OF PENNIES * A child of a wise mother will be taught from early childhood to be- come a regular reader of the adver- tisements.lnthatwaybetterperhaps than in any other can the child be tanghtthegreatvalueofpenniesand the permanent benefit which comeS from making every penny count. ~ 6@@@6@@666@@@@@@@6@ 1 I I I l l ! i t ! ! t ! { l t